Unveiling the Mysteries of Minoan Civilization: A Review of Nikos Kazantzakis’ “The Palaces of Knossos”


Nikos Kazantzakis, a renowned Greek writer, poet, and philosopher, takes readers on an enthralling journey through the ancient ruins of Knossos in his captivating work, “The Palaces of Knossos.” In this article review, we delve into the vivid descriptions, historical insights, and thought-provoking interpretations presented by Kazantzakis as he unravels the mysteries of the Minoan civilization.


“The Palaces of Knossos” serves as both a travelogue and an exploration of the cultural and archaeological significance of Knossos, the legendary palace complex on the island of Crete. Kazantzakis seamlessly intertwines history, mythology, and his own imaginative interpretations to create a compelling narrative that captures the essence of this ancient civilization.

Kazantzakis’ Descriptive Mastery

Kazantzakis’ rich and evocative descriptions bring the ruins of Knossos to life, transporting readers to a bygone era. Through his words, the grandeur of the palaces, the labyrinthine architecture, and the vibrant frescoes come alive in vivid detail. Kazantzakis’ meticulous attention to sensory elements such as colors, scents, and sounds allows readers to immerse themselves in the awe-inspiring environment of Knossos.

Historical Insights and Interpretations

Beyond the descriptive prowess, Kazantzakis provides historical insights into the Minoan civilization, shedding light on the social, political, and religious aspects of Knossos. Drawing from archaeological discoveries and historical accounts, he skillfully weaves together facts with imaginative interpretations, breathing life into the characters and cultural practices of the Minoans.

Kazantzakis delves into the significance of the bull, a recurring symbol in Minoan art and mythology, and speculates on its potential religious and ritualistic associations. He also explores the role of women in Minoan society, emphasizing their empowerment and leadership positions—a departure from the patriarchal norms of ancient civilizations.

Interplay of Myth and Reality

Kazantzakis masterfully merges mythology and history, blurring the lines between fact and fiction. Drawing upon ancient myths, including the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur, he explores their potential connection to the physical and symbolic aspects of Knossos. This interplay between myth and reality adds an element of intrigue and mystique to the narrative, inviting readers to contemplate the layers of meaning embedded within the ruins.

Critical Analysis

While Kazantzakis’ imaginative interpretations and poetic prose are undeniably captivating, some critics argue that his work should be approached with caution as it blurs the line between historical fact and artistic embellishment. It is essential for readers to distinguish between established archaeological evidence and Kazantzakis’ interpretations, viewing his work as a creative exploration rather than a scholarly account.


Nikos Kazantzakis’ “The Palaces of Knossos” offers a captivating and imaginative exploration of the ancient Minoan civilization. Through his descriptive mastery, historical insights, and interplay of myth and reality, Kazantzakis transports readers to the enigmatic world of Knossos. While his interpretations may provoke debate among scholars, his work serves as an engaging introduction to the wonders and mysteries of this ancient civilization. For those seeking a literary journey through the remnants of an extraordinary past, “The Palaces of Knossos” is a compelling choice.


Exploring the Quirky and Thought-Provoking Humour in Alberto Moravia’s “Hot Weather Jokes”: A Review


Alberto Moravia, an Italian author known for his insightful and often controversial works, takes a lighthearted turn in his book “Hot Weather Jokes.” This article review delves into the unique humor, social commentary, and thought-provoking nature of Moravia’s collection of jokes, offering an overview of its comedic appeal and underlying themes.

Humour with a Twist

“Hot Weather Jokes” presents a compilation of jokes centered around the theme of hot weather, a universal experience that often elicits a range of emotions and behaviours. Moravia’s wit shines through as he playfully twists familiar situations, offering unexpected punchlines and humorous scenarios. The book’s humour ranges from light and whimsical to dark and satirical, reflecting Moravia’s ability to navigate various comedic styles.

Social Commentary and Critique

Beneath the surface of the jokes, Moravia infuses social commentary and subtle critique. Through humour, he exposes societal norms, human foibles, and the contradictions of human behaviour. The jokes touch upon themes such as class divisions, gender dynamics, and cultural idiosyncrasies, inviting readers to reflect on the absurdities of daily life.

Moravia’s satire often targets institutions and traditions, challenging established conventions with a light-hearted yet insightful approach. His keen observations of human nature and society add depth to the jokes, making them more than simple entertainment and transforming them into vehicles for introspection and reflection.

Layers of Interpretation

Beyond their immediate humour, the jokes in “Hot Weather Jokes” offer multiple layers of interpretation. Moravia employs irony, wordplay, and ambiguity to create jokes that are open to interpretation and encourage readers to think beyond the surface level. This complexity adds an intellectual element to the book, enticing readers to ponder the underlying messages embedded within the humour.

Additionally, Moravia’s choice of hot weather as a thematic backdrop adds symbolic significance. Hot weather becomes a metaphor for various aspects of life—passions, tensions, and the intensity of human relationships. By intertwining these deeper meanings with the comedic content, Moravia invites readers to engage with the book on a more profound level.

The Translation Factor

It is worth noting that the review is based on the assumption that the jokes have been translated accurately, as Moravia originally wrote them in Italian. The humor and linguistic nuances of jokes can be challenging to capture fully in translation, potentially impacting the overall comedic impact for readers in different languages. Therefore, readers are encouraged to consider the possibility of linguistic subtleties that might be lost or altered in translation.


Alberto Moravia’s “Hot Weather Jokes” is a delightful and thought-provoking collection that blends hum or with social commentary. Through his wit and keen observations, Moravia offers readers a journey through amusing scenarios while simultaneously challenging societal norms and prompting introspection. While the translation may affect the full comedic impact for non-Italian readers, the underlying themes and layers of interpretation make “Hot Weather Jokes” a worthwhile read for those seeking humour with a twist of intellectual engagement.


Climate change and eco-docs


Climate change has emerged as one of the most pressing challenges of our time, affecting ecosystems, economies, and human lives across the globe. In this era of unprecedented environmental crisis, it has become increasingly important to raise awareness and foster critical thinking about climate change. Among the various mediums available, eco-documentaries have proven to be invaluable tools for informing and engaging audiences in understanding the urgency of the issue and inspiring positive action. This article explores the significance of eco-documentaries in promoting environmental consciousness and developing critical thinking skills.

Informative Power

Eco-documentaries possess a unique ability to bring complex scientific concepts and climate-related issues to a wider audience in an accessible and engaging manner. Through captivating visuals, narratives, and expert interviews, these films help viewers grasp the intricacies of climate change, including its causes, impacts, and potential solutions. By presenting scientific evidence and real-life stories, eco-documentaries bridge the gap between the abstract notions of climate change and their tangible effects on communities and the natural world.

Eco-documentaries also shed light on lesser-known aspects of climate change, such as the disproportionate impacts on marginalized communities or the interconnectedness of ecological systems. They uncover environmental injustices and offer a platform for voices that often go unheard. By revealing the human face of climate change, these films foster empathy and encourage viewers to consider the ethical dimensions of the issue.

Inspiring Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is essential in addressing complex challenges like climate change. Eco-documentaries play a vital role in cultivating this skill by presenting multiple perspectives and encouraging viewers to question existing paradigms. By challenging preconceived notions and stimulating intellectual curiosity, these films inspire individuals to delve deeper into the subject matter and evaluate the information presented.

Eco-documentaries often present contrasting viewpoints, reflecting the diversity of opinions within the scientific community and society as a whole. This diversity encourages viewers to assess the credibility of various arguments, critically evaluate evidence, and develop their own informed opinions. By exposing viewers to a range of perspectives, eco-documentaries foster open-mindedness and the ability to engage in constructive dialogue, crucial for finding common ground and implementing effective solutions to combat climate change.

Driving Environmental Action

One of the primary goals of eco-documentaries is to motivate viewers to take action. By portraying the gravity of the climate crisis and its potential consequences, these films inspire individuals to make lifestyle changes, support environmental initiatives, and engage in advocacy efforts. Eco-documentaries showcase real-life examples of individuals and communities taking positive steps to mitigate climate change, empowering viewers to believe in their own capacity to make a difference.

Furthermore, eco-documentaries amplify the voices of activists, scientists, and grassroots organizations working towards environmental sustainability. They highlight successful initiatives and innovative solutions, showcasing the transformative power of collective action. By illustrating the impact of individual and collective efforts, these films motivate viewers to become active participants in the fight against climate change.


Eco-documentaries have emerged as powerful tools for informing and developing critical thinking about climate change. By combining informative narratives, compelling visuals, and a variety of perspectives, these films educate and engage audiences in a way that fosters environmental consciousness and inspires action. In a time when climate change poses an existential threat to our planet, eco-documentaries serve as catalysts for change by empowering individuals with knowledge, empathy, and the critical thinking skills necessary to address this global crisis.


Exploring the Depths of Climate Change: A Review of Jules Verne’s “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea”


Jules Verne’s classic novel, “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea,” takes readers on a thrilling underwater adventure that, upon closer examination, resonates with themes relevant to our modern-day concerns about climate change. In this article review, we explore the connections between Verne’s visionary work and the urgent environmental issues we face today.

Environmental Awareness in a Submerged World

Set in the late 19th century, “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” tells the story of Captain Nemo and his fantastical submarine, the Nautilus. As the characters venture into the depths of the ocean, Verne highlights the wonders of marine life and the delicate balance of ecosystems beneath the waves. The novel provides a vivid portrayal of the beauty and intricacy of underwater ecosystems, presenting a stark contrast to the human-induced environmental degradation we now witness.

Parallel to the novel’s exploration of the underwater world, the narrative draws attention to the destructive consequences of human activities. Captain Nemo’s disdain for humanity and his decision to retreat beneath the sea reflect a disillusionment with the destructive nature of human civilization. This sentiment serves as a cautionary tale, reminding us of the consequences of unchecked exploitation and the importance of responsible stewardship of our planet.

Climate Change and the Fragility of Ecosystems

Verne’s portrayal of the ocean’s fragility in “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” has striking parallels to our current understanding of climate change. The novel underscores the interconnectedness of marine ecosystems and the impact of human actions on these delicate balances. The ecological devastation caused by human activities, such as overfishing and pollution, reflects the threats we face today due to climate change and the degradation of marine environments.

Additionally, Verne’s depiction of the Nautilus as a self-contained environment emphasizes the importance of understanding the interdependence of natural systems. This notion aligns with the urgency of recognizing that climate change affects not only specific ecosystems but the entire planet, demanding a global response and a collective effort to mitigate its effects.

Ethics and Responsibility

“20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” raises questions of ethics and responsibility, inviting readers to reflect on their own role in environmental preservation. Captain Nemo’s radical approach to conservation, though extreme, serves as a reminder that individual actions can have far-reaching consequences. Verne challenges readers to consider the balance between progress and the preservation of the natural world, urging us to reevaluate our choices and their impact on the environment.

Furthermore, the novel explores the ethical dilemma of humanity’s dominion over nature and the need for a more harmonious relationship with the Earth. This resonates with the urgent calls for sustainable practices and responsible resource management in the face of climate change. Verne’s work encourages readers to consider the long-term implications of our actions and the collective responsibility we share in safeguarding the environment for future generations.


Jules Verne’s “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” offers a captivating tale that speaks to our contemporary concerns about climate change and the fragility of our ecosystems. Through its exploration of the underwater world, the novel draws attention to the destructive impact of human activities and emphasizes the urgent need for environmental awareness and responsibility. Verne’s work serves as a timeless reminder that the fate of our planet lies in our hands, urging us to take action and work towards a sustainable future.


St. Peter’s Umbrella

St. Peter’s Umbrella (Hungarian:Szent Péter esernyője) is an 1895 novel by the Hungarian writer Kálmán Mikszáth. It is set in the town of Besztercebánya (now Banská Bystrica), describing the rural life of the peasantry in an undeveloped part of Upper Hungary (now Slovakia).



The story is set is the rural region to the north of Hungary, now Slovakia, where Mikszáth was born. This is the territory of the Palóc people, celebrated by Mikszáth in his writings, especially the short stories “A Jó Palócok” (translated as The Good People of Palocz). The characters in the story are small town middle class and the local peasantry.


The novel is in five sections, the first establishing the legend of ‘St Peter’s umbrella’. The key character is the young priest, János Bélyi, who has just arrived in his first parish, Glogova, so poor that the living barely supports a priest. Within a couple of weeks, a neighbour from his home village appears. He brings news of the priest’s widowed mother’s death, and deposits on him his two-year-old sister. How, János wonders, can he care for his sister when the parish hardly provides enough for him? He goes to the church to seek guidance, leaving little Veronica asleep in her basket on the verandah. A sudden storm with torrential rain interrupts his prayers and he hurries back to the sleeping child, only to find her perfectly dry, her basket covered by a ragged red umbrella. The villagers having seen an old Jew in the neighbourhood, with the umbrella, decide that he closely resembled the picture of Saint Peter in their church: they are convinced that the saint has visited their village. The red umbrella becomes a miraculous object of veneration, its widespread fame bringing visitors and prosperity to the village, and to its priest.


The subsequent sections start with a flashback, many years earlier, in the nearby town of Bestercebánya. The key characters are Pál Gregorics, and his son, Gyuri Wibra. Pál, a socially awkward man, inherits a fortune from his mother – to the displeasure of his two elder half brothers and a half sister. When his cook gives birth to an illegitimate son, it is understood that Pál is the father. He dotes on young Gyuri Wibra, and provides for his education. Regarded as an eccentric, Pál always carries with him a red umbrella from which he refuses to be parted.


Suspicious that his brothers and sister will seek to harm Gyuri’s interests, Pál secretly sells all his estates and property and deposits the cash in a bank, in exchange for a banker’s draft for the entire amount to go to Gyuri. On his death, his will is read out; the brothers are stupefied that there is no mention of any estates, no fortune; just a few insignificant bequests. Gyuri, now a celebrated young lawyer, is aware the missing money was to be his inheritance. Learning that Pál had been a wartime spy and had a compartment made in the handle of his umbrella for carrying secret documents, Gyuri is convinced that a paper, proving his inheritance, is hidden in the handle. This would explain why Pál never let the umbrella out of his sight. But by this time the umbrella had already been sold, along with other sundry possessions, to an old Jew who kept a second-hand shop but who had now disappeared.


The subsequent sections follow Gyuri in his obsessive quest to track down the umbrella. The trail eventually leads him to Glogova; but before he arrives there, he meets a young girl, Veronica, and hears of her ‘miraculous’ red umbrella. Gyuri decides that the only way he can lay hands on his inheritance is to marry Veronica. She accepts him and he has the blessing of the parish priest, her brother. But the plan is thwarted when he discovers that the villagers of Glogova had paid to have the umbrella’s wooden handle replaced with a more fitting silver one, and the old handle had been burnt: Gyuri’s inheritance is lost. But with the loss comes the realisation that he wants to marry Veronica for herself, not to gain possession of his money.


The Transformative Power of Creative Arts Workshops in Fostering Teamwork and Script Development for Collective Plays


Collaborative projects, such as collective plays, provide a unique platform for individuals to come together, share their creativity, and engage in a collective artistic endeavor. In the realm of creative arts, workshops play a vital role in facilitating teamwork and script development for such collaborative productions. This article explores the importance of creative arts workshops in fostering effective teamwork and cultivating a collaborative spirit to create cohesive and impactful collective plays.

Building Trust and Collaboration

Creative arts workshops create a safe and inclusive space where participants can explore ideas, express themselves freely, and develop trust among team members. Through team-building exercises, improvisation activities, and collaborative exercises, participants learn to listen to one another, respect diverse perspectives, and build rapport. These experiences promote an environment of open communication and trust, essential for successful teamwork.

In the context of collective play script development, workshops allow participants to brainstorm, share their visions, and contribute to the collective storytelling process. Collaborative writing exercises enable the exploration of different narratives, themes, and character developments, fostering a sense of ownership and collective investment in the final script. By working together, participants learn the value of compromise, negotiation, and the power of combining individual strengths to create a cohesive artistic vision.

Enhancing Creativity and Innovation

Creative arts workshops provide a fertile ground for creativity and innovation. They encourage participants to think outside the box, experiment with new ideas, and challenge conventional storytelling approaches. Through exercises like improvisation and creative writing prompts, participants are encouraged to break free from limitations and explore uncharted territories. This freedom of expression fosters a spirit of creative risk-taking and enables the emergence of unique and imaginative narratives for the collective play.

Additionally, workshops offer a collaborative space for participants to share and exchange their artistic skills, techniques, and inspirations. By pooling together their diverse expertise, participants can push the boundaries of their creative capabilities, explore new art forms, and experiment with interdisciplinary approaches. This collaborative synergy can lead to the development of innovative storytelling techniques, multimedia elements, and immersive experiences within the collective play.

Developing Communication and Adaptability

Effective communication is essential in any collaborative endeavor. Creative arts workshops provide opportunities for participants to refine their communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal, in a supportive environment. Through collaborative exercises, participants learn to articulate their ideas clearly, actively listen to others, and provide constructive feedback. These skills are crucial in ensuring that the collective play script aligns with the shared vision and that the artistic process remains collaborative and inclusive.

Furthermore, creative arts workshops foster adaptability and flexibility among participants. The process of script development often involves revisions, iterations, and adjustments. Participants learn to adapt their ideas, embrace constructive criticism, and work collectively towards the best possible outcome. This adaptability nurtures a mindset that values collaboration over individual ego, creating a harmonious and cohesive creative environment.


Creative arts workshops play a significant role in fostering teamwork and script development for collective plays. By building trust, encouraging collaboration, and enhancing creativity, these workshops provide a platform for participants to work together towards a shared artistic vision. Through effective communication, adaptability, and the exchange of diverse skills, participants learn the value of collective effort and the transformative power of collaboration. The process of script development in a workshop setting not only results in a cohesive collective play but also nurtures skills and attitudes that extend beyond the artistic realm and into various aspects of life.

Group of teenagers in a school theatre club talking during the break

How Creative Arts can Developing Critical Thinking about Climate Change


Climate change poses an urgent global challenge, demanding innovative approaches to raise awareness and inspire action. In addition to scientific research and advocacy, the creative arts have emerged as powerful tools in informing and developing critical thinking about climate change. Through various artistic mediums, such as visual arts, literature, music, and performance, the creative arts offer unique perspectives and engage audiences on an emotional level. This article explores the importance of creative arts in fostering environmental consciousness and cultivating critical thinking skills in the context of climate change.

Emotional Connection and Awareness

One of the key strengths of the creative arts is their ability to evoke emotions and establish a deep connection with audiences. Climate change, often portrayed through data and scientific reports, can feel distant and overwhelming. Creative arts bridge this gap by presenting climate-related issues in relatable and emotionally resonant ways. Visual artworks, for instance, can convey the beauty of endangered landscapes, while literature and poetry can capture the human experience of ecological loss.

By engaging the senses and emotions, the creative arts bring climate change into the realm of personal experience. They create empathy, allowing audiences to connect with the natural world and those affected by environmental degradation. This emotional connection not only raises awareness but also encourages critical thinking as viewers reflect on their own relationship with the environment and consider the consequences of climate change on a human level.

Perspective and Reflection

Creative arts provide diverse perspectives on climate change, encouraging critical thinking by presenting alternative narratives and challenging dominant discourse. Artists often offer unique insights into environmental issues, exploring the complexities and nuances that scientific data may overlook. Through their work, they highlight the interconnections between social, economic, and ecological systems, fostering a deeper understanding of the multifaceted nature of climate change.

Artistic creations can act as catalysts for reflection, inviting viewers to question their assumptions and values. They stimulate critical thinking by raising thought-provoking questions, such as the impact of human behavior on the planet or the ethics of resource consumption. By offering alternative perspectives and confronting viewers with uncomfortable truths, the creative arts compel individuals to reevaluate their own beliefs and biases, leading to a deeper engagement with climate change issues.

Inspiration for Action

The creative arts not only inform and engage but also inspire action. Art has the power to ignite hope, creativity, and resilience, encouraging individuals to become agents of change. Through various artistic expressions, the creative arts depict stories of resilience, environmental activism, and sustainable practices, motivating viewers to take positive steps towards addressing climate change.

Artistic projects and performances often serve as platforms for collective action and community engagement. They provide spaces for dialogue, collaboration, and shared experiences, fostering a sense of collective responsibility. Art can initiate conversations, shape public discourse, and influence policy, playing a crucial role in advocating for sustainable practices and policies.


The creative arts offer a unique and indispensable contribution to informing and developing critical thinking about climate change. By establishing emotional connections, providing diverse perspectives, and inspiring action, the creative arts play a pivotal role in engaging audiences on a deeper level. In a world grappling with the complex challenges of climate change, the creative arts have the potential to spark transformation, empowering individuals to view the crisis through new lenses, fostering critical thinking, and inspiring collective action. It is through the intersection of science and the creative arts that we can shape a more sustainable and resilient future.


eARTh: a project of old stories for a new future 

This May a Creative Europe collaborative project between Golden Movie Studios, Greece, … Italy and …. Hungary will begin with the goal of bringing together a creative party of writers, directors, actors, videomakers and others to make them rethink of classical literary works through the lens of climate change. 

The aim of eARTh is to create a collaborative original film with innovative hologram technology and animation elements, featuring Earth’s future like never seen before. The key is to bring together in a synergistic approach two things all humans have in common: stories, and Earth as our home. So, what happens when we mix these two ingredients together?

People are brought together to discuss, to learn and to create. This is the core of eARTh, which aims to bring a transnational band of creators together, to educate them on climate change, to provide them with the craftsmanship knowledge of writing and acting, and to produce a movie about the future of Earth, through common concern and creativity.


What will be the performance about?


With an eye for storytelling innovation, the participants of eARTh will reinvent classical tales from an environmentalist perspective – 


in the 21st century, Jules Verne’s Nautilus would roam through an underwater Venice since the sea level has risen. 


Or Kazantzakis’ Theseus would lose their course in a Mediterranean storm.


What would bring these unexpected turns and twists around the plot? 

Climate change and its consequences on the planet. And the movie will include animation features and hologram projection for viewers!


The project will develop a series of outputs (including narratives, training material, curricula, a short film, a holographic performance, presentations, methodology) from across a network of climate researchers along with culture associations, organisations, and training staff of non-normal adult education. Together these contributions invite transformational thinking on unpredictable climate-changed futures.




eARTh” adopts a special formula which, besides supporting dialogue between different cultures and media languages, supports varied activities for transnational dissemination and access to the finished works by everyone: the writers and actors provide translated scripts for voiceover and subtitles for linguistic inclusion. The combined effect of the cultural setting of each story, the familiar cultural setting and the animated storytelling compounds of the story will create works available in multiple European countries, overcoming linguistic barriers, thanks to the dedication of the artists and professionals. 

Not just a performance

eARTh is a fully fleshed-out programme with layers -much like the planet itself- 

  • collaborating with experts from the Aristotle University’s Department of Meteorology and Climatology, a series of custom educational mini-docs will be produced so the participants, and the viewers, in a latter stage, will receive meaningful information about climate change that will allow them to critically receive and develop the concept of the movie.
  • eARTh is in accordance with the Erasmus+ green policy, as the transportation of the artists from Greece, to Italy and Hungary respectively will be via coach, reducing the carbon footprint and fuel waste of a large-scale transnational collaboration. It will also give the opportunity to the participants to travel, bond and work together like a theatre troupe from the past, providing many unique opportunities for creative incubation.


That’s why the whole roadtrip from country to country will be documented and then edited to the Showrunner Docs, which will also be available to the public.   

eARTh, is both an opportunity and a challenge. The participants will bring their uniqueness together, and fused with the mobility element and the “hive deviation” environment, they will be exposed to various cultures, personal experiences and storytelling methods. These will improve the quality and relevance of every participant in learning arts and culture disciplines, and at the same time secure a deliverable final product which nurtures core EU beliefs and ethics, by linking creativity, activism and technology. 


The eARTh project will be completed in 2023, after a series of transnational exchange, residencies and post-production animation and hologram enhancement, sharing all the deliverable results with the world.  

We, as the creative team of eARTh feel the urgency to create situations in which this collective work is further developed. New realities ask for new practices, and these practices need to be developed. 

eARTh is more than bringing people together. 

eARTh is more than making a movie together. 

eARTh is our future.

eARTh: Ένα project κλασσικών παλιών ιστοριών για ένα καινοτόμο μέλλον

ή πώς το Earth without art is just “eh”